Penal Code

 

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Many commentators had assessed the penal code of Islam as harsh and unmerciful

Yes, this is very true..!!

Why..?

The blessings and gifts offered to Muslims by Allah swt are numerous and outstanding
The entire universe was created to serve the Muslim, enabling her/him to charge all energies and efforts for the acknowledgment, worship and please of Allah swt
No Muslim is excused or pardoned for not doing so
Offences, Felonies, and Crimes are deviations from the righteous path, charged and facilitated by both Devil and Nafs (Self)..
Committing these violations means weaker self esteem and control, allowing for unhealthy ethics and immoralities to manage intentions, actions, and reactions ; which would drive the person in a different path of life, apart from its Islamic mandate..

Deterrence, Departition and Conclusivity

As opposed to other legal systems, in which crimes are generally considered violations of the rights of the state, Islamic law divides crimes into four different categories depending on the nature of the right violated:

  • Hadd:        violation of a boundary of defined by Allah swt
  • Ta’zir:       violation of the right of an individual
  • Qisas:       violation of the mixed right of Allah swt and of an individual in which the right of the individual is deemed to predominate
  • Siyasah:   violation of the right of the community

 

Except for drinking alcohol, punishments for all hudud crimes are specified in the Quran or Hadith
Hudud, meaning “limits”, is the most serious category and includes crimes specified in the Quran

  1. Drinking alcohol (sharb al-khamr, شرب الخمر)
  2. Theft (as-sariqah, السرقة)
  3. Highway robbery (qat`a at-tariyq, قطع الطريق)
  4. Illegal sexual intercourse (az-zinā’, الزناء)
  5. False accusation of illegal sexual intercourse (qadhf, القذف)
  6. Apostasy (irtidād or ridda, ارتداد) – includes blasphemy

 

Strict requirements for evidence (including eyewitnesses) have severely limited the application of hudud penalties
The Oxford Islamic Studies defines the six crimes for which punishments are fixed as:

  1. Theft (amputation of the hand),
  2. Illicit sexual relations (death by stoning or one hundred lashes),
  3. Making unproven accusations of illicit sex (eighty lashes),
  4. Drinking intoxicants (eighty lashes),
  5. Apostasy (death or banishment), and
  6. Highway robbery (death)
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