Ahl AlKitab

 People of the Book (Scripture)

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Those who believe (in the Quran), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

 

 

Extractions from Wikipedia

People of the Book (Arabic: أهل الكتاب‎ ‎ ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is a term used to designate non-Muslim adherents to faiths which have a revealed scripture called, in Arabic, Ahl-Al-Kitab‎ “the people of the Book” or “people of the Scripture”).

The three types of adherents to faiths that the Qur’an mentions as people of the book are the Jews, Sabians and Christians.

In Islam, the Muslim scripture, the Qur’an, is taken to represent the completion of these scriptures, and to synthesize them as God’s true, final, and eternal message to humanity. Because the People of the Book recognize the God of Abraham as the one and only god, as do Muslims, and they practice revealed faiths based on divine ordinances, tolerance and autonomy is accorded to them in societies governed by sharia (Islamic divine law).

In Judaism the term “People of the Book” (Hebrew: עם הספר, Am HaSefer) was used to refer specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah, and to the Jewish people and the wider canon of written Jewish law (including the Mishnah and the Talmud). Adherents of other Abrahamic religions, which arose later than Judaism, were not added. As such, the appellation is accepted by Jews as a reference to an identity rooted fundamentally in Torah.

In Christianity, the Catholic Church rejects the similar expression “religion of the book” as a description of the Christian faith, preferring the term “religion of the Word of God.”Nevertheless, other denominations, such as the Baptist Church, Methodist Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church as well as Puritans and Shakers, have embraced the term “People of the Book.”

The Sabians (Arabic: صابئة‎) of Middle Eastern tradition were a monotheistic Abrahamic religious group mentioned three times in the Quran: “the Jews, the Sabians, and the Christians.” In the Hadith they are nothing but converts to Islam, while their identity in later Islamic literature became a matter of discussion and investigation.

 

The Qur’an briefly announces the Sabians in three places and the Hadeeth provide further details as to who they were as People of the Book:

“Verily! Those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians,  whoever believes in Allāh and the Last Day and do righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve .” Quran 2:62

“Those who believe (in the Qur’an) those who follow the Jewish (Scriptures) and the Sabians and the Christians―any who believe in Allāh and the Last Day, and work righteousness―on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” Quran 5:69

“Verily, those who believe, and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Majus, and those who worship others besides Allāh, truly, Allāh will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily! Allāh is Witness over all things.” Quran 22:17

—————————————-

 Apparently, Islam decorates Jews, Christians and Sabians in positions are not bilateral; which logically resulted from earlier timelines for each, whereas Muslims were not existing.. Quran tells that each of the earlier Holy Scriptures had included clues and statements on the forthcoming Last Prophet; which would require intensive scrutiny and analysis to preciously define.. Some Muslim scholars had claimed doing so, which I did not have access to their works..

Despite the enforced Tribute on People of the Book during the times of the Muslim State, They were allowed for total religious freedom, civil rights and (conditioned) mixed matrimony with Muslims.. Some of them had been employed in senior positions in state administration and military.. Only the political confusion during Fatimid State had seeded deterioration to the citizenship of none Muslims; which later declined further during the Ottoman State..

Comments
  1. adilsud says:

    Ben Abrahamson

    Q. Salaam aleikum, Rabbi. i want to ask something regarding this saying, how it can be correlated to the shavout? 6th of Sivan which you proposed before as the 6th of Shawwal?

    «أُنْزِلَتْ صُحُفُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي أَوَّلِ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ، وَأُنْزِلَتِ التَّوْرَاةُ لِسِتَ مَضَيْنَ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ، وَالْإِنْجِيلُ لِثَلاثَ عَشَرةَ خَلَتْ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ، وَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ الْقُرْآنَ لأَرْبَعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ خَلَتْ مِنْ رَمَضَان»

    (The Suhuf (Pages) of Ibrahim were revealed during the first night of Ramadan. The Torah was revealed during the sixth night of Ramadan. The Injil was revealed during the thirteenth night of Ramadan. Allah revealed the Qur’an on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan.)

    A. Wa aleikum salaam wa rahmatullah. I would have to look into this hadith more closely. AFAIK this hadith is related by Tabarsi II, p.121.

    According to this hadith, it says that “Allah revealed the Qur’an on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan.” but if this were exact then there would be no disagreement when Laylat al-Qadr occurred. The standard ahadith collections say that Laylat al-Qadr was one of the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan. So maybe this hadith is speaking in a general way.

    So perhaps when this hadith says “The Torah was revealed during the sixth night of Ramadan.” It means the sixth night of Shawwal, which is what is described in the Torah. indeed most of the preparation for giving the Torah was during Iyyar/Ramadan.

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  2. adilsud says:

    إحدي الخزعبلات والأخطاء التي باتت متداولة بين المسلمين ، منذ عهد الأتراك والى اليوم ، هي تصنيف أهل الكتاب باعتبارهم كفار ، حيث أدت بالفعل إلى تفتيت جبهة المؤمنين بالله تعالى
    عندما وصفوهم ربهم سبحانه بأنهم أهل كتاب ، كان لديه العلم القديم سبحانه ، بأنهم بعضهم يخطئون لدرجة أن يغضب عليهم سبحانه ، وبعضهم يضلون لدرجة أن يصبهم التيه إليه سبحانه ، ولكنه سبحانه وتعالى قدرهم ورفعهم فوق باقي الآخرين ، وكاد الاسلام أن يجعلهم صنواناً للمسلمين في التكاليف والتشريعات
    أتمنى ان تنتشر ثقافة التصحيح بين المسلمين المتعلمين ، على الأقل
    الأمر ليس له علاقة بالحروب الصليبية ، ولكنه تركياً خالصاً ، جزء من سياسة الاستانة لاخضاع المسلمين واستثارتهم وتأليبهم ضد أعداء الدولة ، وخاصة أبان حروب البلقان ، وفي هذا الفخ الاديولوجي سقط الجميع ، متشددين ومعتدلين وعوام ، حيث تزامن مع مفهوم بعث الخلافة الاسلامية ، وصار جزء من الثقافة الشعبية السائدة لدي المسلمين كافة ، من المغرب وحتى الملايو ، ومن تتارستان وحتى بورنو ، وهذا بعض من دعوتي لتصحيح المفاهيم

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  3. adilsud says:

    Do you consider Banu Quraysh to be a Jewish tribe?

    This was an interesting discussion on FB..
    I hope you will enjoy it..!
    Thanks to all contributors; led by Ben Abrahamson..

    (—-)
    Do you think Muhammad was Jewish?

    Ben Abrahamson
    Not in the sense of “Jewish” as the word is used today. However, I propose, based on a reconstruction of events, that the progenitor of the Quraysh – Adnan – was identical with Onias IV (Anan in Hellenized Hebrew). This would make the Quraysh one of the last remaining descendants of the Zadokite priesthood which was expelled from Jerusalem when the Hasmoneans took over the priesthood. This is supported by alternative versions of the name Adnan being spelled as Anan. I also offer it as an explanation for why the Ka’aba, at a certain point in its history, was structurely similar to the Temple of Onias in Heliopolis. It is apparently also referred to in Tractate Menuchos, as a place which had fallen into idolatry in the first centuries of the common era. Abu ‘Ubayda Ma’mar b. al-Muthanna (d. 825CE) book called Kitab al-mathalib and another work Kitab al-munammaq and also Ibn al-Kalbi’s (d. 819CE) book Kitab mathalib al-‘arab document the numerous marriages between the Quraish and Jewish women, including members of the “noble house” of the Jewish Exilarch. It is related there that Abd al-Muttalib (ra) married a noble Jewish woman, and this was the maternal grandmother of ‘Ali (ra). ‘Ali (ra) descent and his relationship to the Exilarch is also mentioned in Geniza fragments. Some of this is also discussed in Graetz, Geschichte der Juden von den ltesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. (History of the Jews) His positive relationship with the academies in Babylon is described in Iggeres Sherira Gaon. The Prophet (pbuh), however, was from a different marriage. His great grandmother was from the tribe of Hind. The “Judaism” of the Oniads was similar to what we know today. Qussai (ra) married the daughter of the Jurham King named “Hillel”. He formed a Sanhedrin in Mecca, called the Dar Al Nadwa, within a generation after it was forcibly disbanded in Tiberias. He announced the New Moons in an office called the Nasa (Nasi). Even so, the “Judaism” practiced in Arabia was a syncretic mixture of Sadducean, proto-Christian, and even Rabbinic influences. Though certain families among the Quraysh were “Jewish” enough to intermarry with the family of the Exilarch, it is uncertain how widely this applied.

    Zuraini Nordin
    Interesting. Rabbi, I need to know about the Jewishness of Khadijah’s cousin Waraqah who was an Ebionite Christian? The Ebionites that time, generally were Jews who believed in Jesus but at the same time kept and practiced the teachings of the Torah?

    Zuraini Nordin
    Khadijah r.a

    Ben Abrahamson
    I don’t know. Ibn Hisham says that Waraqah was a Jewish priest, who knew Hebrew. We learn from Sahih Bukhari that Waraqah used to read the Gospel in Arabic. I think all the “People of the Book” were descended from Jews and Jordanian Jewish converts (from the Second Temple period). It is said that all the “People of the Book” kept Ashura (Yom Kippur), ritual purity (negas) of vessels, and offered sacrifices at the ka’aba.

    Zuraini Nordin
    Thank you.

    Yusuf Kar Muhammad [saw] was from the tribe of adnan. The family of Adnanites carry J1 gene which is what many Jews of present day carry too.And he [saw] is from Ishmael [AS]. So most likely he was of Jewish heritage. There are among Jews who had fallen into idolatry (carry J2 gene) and subsequently they moved and settled in Indi where they started the Indian civilization with the nomadic Aryans. All these J2 carriers are majorly found among upper caste hindus proving that theory.

    Ben Abrahamson
    Another support for the connection between Adnan and Anan (Onias IV), is that the majority of Sayyids test positive for the “Cohen” DNA gene.

    Yusuf Kar
    Yes thats what I was about to write. The Ji

    Yusuf Kar
    The J1 is the cohen gene

    Yusuf Kar
    The j2 also found in Jews originated from Jerusalem and Jericho region. The progenitors of this gene build first cities and were the frst people to cultivate lands. Its different from J1.

    Ben Abrahamson ‎
    “There are among Jews… subsequently they moved and settled in India” Tabari specifically talks about the Jewish Tubba’ kings (Tobiads) who controlled the “silk road” for a time, and prepared a string of synagogues/mosques with minarets from Himyar to India.

    Yusuf Kar
    Yes..apparently these people taught the Aryans how to build cities and agricultural lands. When I did my DNA test (my ancestors are hindus), I was surprised when they told me I should visit Jerusalem and Jericho to see how may ancestors lived. That was a surprise. lol

    Yusuf Kar ‎
    my ancestors lived. The analysis was done by National Geographic. But that was from father’s side. I havent done my mother’s side yet.

    Ben Abrahamson
    The shared common history between Muslims and Jews was readily accepted by all scholars until about 150 years ago. This changed when the German revisionist historians, in particular Wellhausen, blazed a trail that would be followed later by the Nazis. They worked to erase any connection between Arabia and the Jews, and turned the Arabians in to pagan rock worshipers, totally isolated from scriptural tradition.

    Zuraini Nordin
    Yusuf Kar, are you saying that those idol worshipers among the Hindus – cow worship, has its roots in Jewish history (not Judaism), it goes back to the time of Moses and Aaron pbu them?

    Yusuf Kar
    Yes based on historical and genetic evidences it seems so. Also earliest hindu scriptures talk about Brahma as the father of human race. The name is very close to Abraham. It talks about Manuh saving humanity from flood — name very close to Nuh. and it says Brahma’s wife is saraswati..name really close to Sarah.

    Yusuf Kar
    I dont know any synonym with Musa aleyh salam ..but yes some hindus still worship the cow and the cow in general is considered to be a sacred animal by hindus. But nomadic aryans didnt consider them so. I think it was some later ciorrupted jewish influence coz we know aryans interacted with J1 gene people and formed the Vedic civilization. And this cow worship must have been a major deviation among jewish tribes coz its mentioned in Torah and also is the biggest chapter in Quran showing the enormity of the event.

    Zuraini Nordin
    MashaAllah, very interesting, Hindus need to know this so they could come to proper Monotheism.

    Yusuf Kar
    well majorly Hindus think they are in montheism, albeit different then what is practiced in Arabia, so its very difficult to convert a hindu.

    Yusuf Kar
    Their concept is something like the concept of Jesus in christianity.

    Zuraini Nordin
    yes, unfortunately

    Yusuf Kar
    Also architecturally ancient Hindu temples follow the Jewish temple. There is a inner sanctum sanctorum which no one can enter except the High Priests. You have a special group of people who form the priestly class and they are called Barhmans (you can see descendants of Abraham..maybe they were Jews who taught religious philosophies to nomadic aryans).

    Zuraini Nordin
    The Karaite jews?

    Yusuf Kar
    Then if you see concept of lineage – jews and hindus have same pattern. You can not really “convert” to judasim. You have to be a born jew having a certain lineage. Similarly you can not “convert” to hinduism. You have to be a born hindu. Like Jews , hindus also believe each nation has their own Prophet, and they are not obligated to follow prophets of other religions. Also like jews they believe if every group stick to their religious laws faithfully God will reward them, they dont have to change religions. Thats why both Jews and Hindus rarely convert to any other religion/

    Yusuf Kar
    Just to add — historically the nomadic aryans had known to interact with the jewish people in babylon around 3000BC and then came to India around 1500 BC after settling in Persia for a certain period. For example one of the hindu gods — marut is mentioned in Quran as an angel who was sent to babylon. Also the origins of swastika and star of David are said to be same by many.
    Yusuf Kar
    I mean the historical symbolism and proto-type of star of david and swastika is the same as said by archaeologists.

    Ben Abrahamson
    I think it is possible that the interaction between Arabian “Jews” and Hindus could be as late as the 2nd-6th centuries along the Silk Road. I am struck, for example, of the similarities of Yemenite wedding dress and comparable Hindu attire.

    Yusuf Kar
    Yemen and India had strong trade links even before Islam. Prophet [sa]w mentioned Indian oudh as cure for many ailments.

    Yusuf Kar
    Even yemeni and omani cuisine is very similar to Indian cuisine as told to me by my yemeni and omani friends.

    Timur Can
    Mostly Jewish Men are R1 and also Cohenite’s have R1

    Yusuf Kar
    I love it when people without any knowledge speak about genetic analysis. I think thats the beauty of internet. Anyone can write anything. Cohens belong to J1 and J2. And R1a are Aryan genes found among Persians and Upper Caste Hindus mostly.

    (—-)
    Ben Abrahamson When I mean by “Jewish” I mean by practice. Like do you believe that Muhamamd’s parents were Pagan? Or do you think they Jewish (not by genealogy but by practice)? Do you think the Quraish tribe practice paganism?

    (—-)
    Ben Abrahamson , Do you consider Muhammad’s movement to be a Torah Movement, in that Muhamamd was trying to preach Torah (as in Torah laws) or as a Monotheistic Movement? Or was Muhammad’s movement initially a Torah Movement?

    (—-)
    Ive asked these question bc there was a discussion on FB group about your views on these topics. And no one could agree on you correct viewpoint.

    (—-)
    I have a hard time understanding how Muhammad could be Jewish by practice. Yes, the Quran is full of Aggagah and Midrashic stories, but as the Quran states these stories where common between the Arabs. Everyone knew these stories. But when it come to more specific Jewish practices, hadith seem to show that Muhamamd was unaware of these custom, for example Yom Kippur. His Jewish companions were knowledgeable in Jewish interpretation and halacha but Muhammad specifically I don’t think that was his area of expertise. Hadiths also seem to show a separation between how non-Jewish follows practice vs jewish followers. The non-Jewish followed Muhammad directly as an authority. Whilst the Jewish followers always consulted Torah/Talmudh. And when a Jew went to Muhammad, it seems that Muhammad would use the Torah to help them, but when a non-jewish came to Muhammad, he doesn’t use the Torah as a reference. To me, Muhamamd’s Movement was a Monotheistic Movement, that had no problems co-existing with Judaism, in fact many Jewish scholars aid Muhammad, but as not a Jewish/Torah Movement.

    Ben Abrahamson
    As a historian, it appears to me that Muhammad (pbuh) was correcting the mistaken incorrect idea that a non-Jew had to keep 613 commandments to gain eternal life. The Rambam says that Islam is a return to the (Monotheistic/Noahide) true faith of Abraham (pbuh). This is what I am reminded of when I read the following ayat: “Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with thee unless thou follow their form of religion. Say: “The Guidance of Allah,-that is the (only) Guidance.” Wert thou to follow their desires after the knowledge which hath reached thee, then wouldst thou find neither Protector nor helper against Allah.” (Surat Al Baqara 2.120) “They say: “Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (to salvation).” Say thou: “Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with Allah.” (Surat Al Baqara 2.135) “Those who follow the messenger, the unlettered Prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own (scriptures),- in the Torah and the Gospel;- for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honour him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper.” (Surat Al Araf 7.157) Tosefos says that Onias originally built altars for Bnei Noah so that they could bring offerings, but little by little, for political reasons, the “Bnei Noah” were given more and more of the requirements of Torah until it was said “Become [full] Jews… if ye would be guided [to salvation]”. Islam “releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them.” and returns to more pure Noahism.

    (—-)
    Ok, That makes sense to me.

    Yusuf Kar
    hmmm…but Muhammad [saw] is called the Prophet of All Mankind in Quran, doesnt it mean he [saw] is a Prophet for Jews also?

    Ben Abrahamson
    As a historian, I don’t the Muhammad (pbuh) ever tried to follow the Shari’ah of Torah. I believe that Qussai (ra) and the Quraish did.

    Ben Abrahamson ‎
    @Yusuf Kar, here you are getting theological. My answer would be that all the Prophets (pbu them) had a specific and general message. The specific message was to the Ummah to which they were assigned, and the general message was to all mankind. Moses (pbuh) taught the Noahide laws at Sinai for the benefit of all mankind. Muhammad (pbuh) can be said to be different, because, being a return to the true (Noahide) faith of Abraham (pbuh), it was open to all mankind in a way that the more restrictive Torah and other revelations were not.

    Yusuf Kar
    I see. Thanks for the answer, makes sense to me.

    Ben Abrahamson ‎
    @(—-) ,
    Remember, Muhammad (pbuh) abolished the Torah based, Temple-like sacrificial system at the Ka’aba, that the Quraish had set up and required of all believers.

    Timur Can
    Muhammad wan’t a Jew, he’s mother wasn’t …no any Person know’s about he was circumcised or not…and I read the koran, and no…there is mor of the apogrphys christianity as any of the jewish trad.—Also the jew’s in Medina lived together with the pagan arab in harmony, but muhammad came and it was over…by he’s order the jewish tribe of banu quraizha was killed and it was one of the biggest genozid by the jewish folk…No christianity no islam…Mosaic Law is the rght…the other is all a poor copy

    Mattitjahu Kranendonk
    I really hope Ben Abrahamson that what you know and what is written here, as well in other discussions will be saved and written down in a good book. A lot to learn for all relgions and people who want to know it. I, as non scholar, have now a question, maybe sounds crazy, and nothing to do with this, in my contact with somebody in Iran and in Holland i am confronted with the 2 mainstream Islamic groups: shiah and suni. The Dutch muslima disagree with you, and she seems to me suni, the Iranian muslaim shiah. Is there any differences of accetping your work in both groups ?

    Ben Abrahamson ‎
    “will be saved and written down in a good book” I pray that God will grant me this opportunity. “Is there any differences of accepting your work in both groups” No, the only difference tends to be how familiar the people are with the source texts that I quote and early Islamic scholars.

    Yusuf Kar
    That will be an awesome book if you pen it down and may be a start to a new relation of peace and brotherhood between Jews and Muslims, Inshallah and solution of all problems as you have stated in light of Shariah and Halachah.

    Ben Abrahamson
    Masha’Allah. Insha’Allah.

    Yusuf Kar
    Insha’Allah Ravi, for God says in Quran — ” It may be that Allah will bring about love between you and those of them with whom you are now at enmity; and Allah is All-Powerful; and Allah is Most Forgiving, Merciful.”[60:8]

    (—-) ‎
    Ben Abrahamson needs to make a FB Group so it’s easier to search his responses :-D…

    Salam Shafii
    Interesting discussion, and its hard to swallow ;0. As your latest post appear, I pray to Allah, that you may one of rightly guided person that may help to clear up Julius Wellhausen fitna, and rediscovered again what kind of relationship that both Jews and Muslim has shared for centuries before.

    Ben Abrahamson
    Which part is “hard to swallow”? It is hard to explain why noble and wealthy Jewish women married into the Quraysh, if they were not considered in some way “Jewish”. These marriages were recorded in books written when “Jewish” descent was not considered complementary. It is hard to believe that these details are not correct, because few would dare invent such stories about the grandfather of the Prophet (pbuh).

    Salam Shafii
    Intermarriage would happen one way or another along historical journey between any tribe for any political reason. True or not, its still not affecting the pure message of the unlettered prophet. That he was not learn and practice what he may get from the elders. Its crystal clear that he independence from any influence, except from only God, as what happens to Moses and previous prophets.

    Ben Abrahamson
    I agree. But the idea of a pure revelation does not contradict the interdependence of all divine revelation. Quranic Islam is not an isolated faith which has no relationship to the customs and traditions of the other Ummahs and their Prophets (pbu them).

    Abu Huraira
    reports that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “My position, in relation to the prophets who came before me, can be explained in the following example: A man erected a building and adorned his edifice with great beauty, but he left an empty niche in the corner [without plaster], where just one brick was missing. People looked around the building and marveled at its beauty, but wondered why a brick was missing from that niche! I am like unto that one missing brick and I am the last in line of the prophets.” (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim.)

    Salam Shafii
    True. and true believer will say, “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.” (Al Baqarah: 285)

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