People of the Book (Scripture)
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
Those who believe (in the Quran), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
Extractions from Wikipedia
People of the Book (Arabic: أهل الكتاب ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is a term used to designate non-Muslim adherents to faiths which have a revealed scripture called, in Arabic, Ahl-Al-Kitab “the people of the Book” or “people of the Scripture”).
The three types of adherents to faiths that the Qur’an mentions as people of the book are the Jews, Sabians and Christians.
In Islam, the Muslim scripture, the Qur’an, is taken to represent the completion of these scriptures, and to synthesize them as God’s true, final, and eternal message to humanity. Because the People of the Book recognize the God of Abraham as the one and only god, as do Muslims, and they practice revealed faiths based on divine ordinances, tolerance and autonomy is accorded to them in societies governed by sharia (Islamic divine law).
In Judaism the term “People of the Book” (Hebrew: עם הספר, Am HaSefer) was used to refer specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah, and to the Jewish people and the wider canon of written Jewish law (including the Mishnah and the Talmud). Adherents of other Abrahamic religions, which arose later than Judaism, were not added. As such, the appellation is accepted by Jews as a reference to an identity rooted fundamentally in Torah.
In Christianity, the Catholic Church rejects the similar expression “religion of the book” as a description of the Christian faith, preferring the term “religion of the Word of God.”Nevertheless, other denominations, such as the Baptist Church, Methodist Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church as well as Puritans and Shakers, have embraced the term “People of the Book.”
The Sabians (Arabic: صابئة) of Middle Eastern tradition were a monotheistic Abrahamic religious group mentioned three times in the Quran: “the Jews, the Sabians, and the Christians.” In the Hadith they are nothing but converts to Islam, while their identity in later Islamic literature became a matter of discussion and investigation.
The Qur’an briefly announces the Sabians in three places and the Hadeeth provide further details as to who they were as People of the Book:
“Verily! Those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians, whoever believes in Allāh and the Last Day and do righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve .” Quran 2:62
“Those who believe (in the Qur’an) those who follow the Jewish (Scriptures) and the Sabians and the Christians―any who believe in Allāh and the Last Day, and work righteousness―on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” Quran 5:69
“Verily, those who believe, and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Majus, and those who worship others besides Allāh, truly, Allāh will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily! Allāh is Witness over all things.” Quran 22:17
Apparently, Islam decorates Jews, Christians and Sabians in positions are not bilateral; which logically resulted from earlier timelines for each, whereas Muslims were not existing.. Quran tells that each of the earlier Holy Scriptures had included clues and statements on the forthcoming Last Prophet; which would require intensive scrutiny and analysis to preciously define.. Some Muslim scholars had claimed doing so, which I did not have access to their works..
Despite the enforced Tribute on People of the Book during the times of the Muslim State, They were allowed for total religious freedom, civil rights and (conditioned) mixed matrimony with Muslims.. Some of them had been employed in senior positions in state administration and military.. Only the political confusion during Fatimid State had seeded deterioration to the citizenship of none Muslims; which later declined further during the Ottoman State..